Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and wide readership — a perfect fit for your research every time. Learn More Submit Now. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Total Mendeley and CiteULike bookmarks. Paper's citation count computed by Scopus. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Sum of Facebook and Twitter activity. The timing of the first entry of humans into Oldest human carbon dating America is still hotly debated within the scientific community.
Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves Yukon Territory from to cagbon a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia Alaska and the Yukon Territory occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum LGM. This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age cwrbon concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the caarbon The weight of the available archaeological datjng suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca.
Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves oldest human carbon dating. Bourgeon L, Burke A, Higham T Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada. PLoS ONE 12 1: September 9, ; Accepted: December 16, ; Published: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in dting medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Beringia, a vast region stretching from the Lena River in Siberia to the Mackenzie River in crabon Yukon Territory oldest human carbon dating 1cargon ], is thought to have played a pivotal role in the initial dispersal of human populations from Asia to North America. The exact timing of the initial dispersal remains uncertain, however.
Recent genetic and palaeogenetic analyses [ oldrst — 10 ], as well as dental morphological evidence [ 11 ], confirm that human populations migrating into North America originated oldest human carbon dating Siberia. They also suggest that dispersing groups reached Beringia during the LGM dated to ca. Unfortunately, archaeological support for the standstill hypothesis is scarce [ 12 ]. Recent archaeological discoveries prove that humans were able to adapt to high-latitude, Arctic environments by at least 45, cal BP [ 13 ].
The Yana River sites, in Siberia, demonstrate that modern human populations had reached Western Beringia by 32, cal BP [ 1415 ], i. Human activity is not recorded again in Western Beringia until the post-LGM period, however, with occupations of hunan open-air sites, Berelekh and Ushki, dated to ca. In Eastern Beringia, the oldest currently accepted human occupations occur in the Tanana valley interior Alaska at Swan Point, Broken Daying and Mead [ 19 — 21 ], and at the Little John site, located 2 km east of the international border in the Yukon Territory [ 22 ]; these sites are no older than o,dest.
The only potential candidate for an earlier, LGM occupation datingg Beringia is the controversial Bluefish Caves site. The site is comprised of three small karstic cavities, not exceeding 30 m 3 in volume, located in the Keele range about 54 kilometres southwest of Old Crow village. Oldest human carbon dating caves are situated at the base of a limestone ridge about meters above the right bank of the Bluefish River [ 23 — 27 ].
All three cavities datjng a loess layer Unit B up to one meter thick, deposited on bedrock Unit A and overlain by a humus layer mixed with cryoclastic debris Unit C and finally, a modern humus layer Unit D [ 2527 ]. The loess deposit Unit B can be differentiated into three sub-layers based on granulometric and sedimentological examinations and was excavated in 5 cm spits [ 23 ]. Small artefact series were excavated datkng the loess in Cave I MgVo-1 and Cave II MgVo-2 and rich faunal assemblages were recovered oldest human carbon dating all three caves [ 23 — 27 ].
The lithic assemblages which number about one hundred olvest include microblades, microblade cores, burins and burin spalls as well as small flakes and other lithic debris [ 23 — 26 ]. Most of the artefacts were recovered from the humxn of Cave II at a depth comprised between about 30 to cm. The deepest diagnostic pieces—a microblade core B3. While the artefacts cannot be dated with precision [ 242529 ], they are typologically similar to the Dyuktai culture which appears in Eastern Siberia about 16—15, cal BP, or possibly earlier, ca.
There are humsn reported hearth features [ 24 ]. Palaeoenvironmental evidence, including evidence of herbaceous tundra vegetation [ 3132 ] and vertebrate fauna typical of Pleistocene deposits found elsewhere in Eastern Beringia [ 273334 ], is consistent with previously obtained oldest human carbon dating dates which suggest that the loess layer was deposited between 10, and 25, 14 C BP radiocarbon years Before Presenti. Chronological evidence from Bluefish Caves I and II led to the initial suggestion that human occupation of Eastern Beringia occurred before the LGM, as early as 24, 14 C BP [ 24 — 27 ].
Best new zealand online dating sites as to the stratigraphic integrity of the site and anthropogenic nature of the bone samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis did not encourage the scientific community humna accept this hypothesis, unfortunately [ 2936 — guman ]. In order to clarify the nature of the bone assemblages and to establish the chronology of human xating of the site, we undertook a re-analysis of the faunal assemblages from Bluefish Caves I and II from a rigorous, oldest human carbon dating perspective.
In a recent article published by one of us [ 39 ], we presented a study of the faunal assemblage from Cave II and showed that humans partially contributed to the modification of the bone material.
Discovery of Oldest Human Fossil Fills Evolutionary Gap
The artists who produced these unique paintings used techniques rarely found in other cave art. Present testing shows the amount of C in the atmosphere has been increasing since it was first measured in the s. He described the writing in this scroll as "an Italian script, rather clumsy-looking, in which certain letters, as well as the usual crowns and strokes, show uncommon and strange appendices. This scroll's copyist did not know of those rules. In addition, a second carbon test at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign confirmed the first result.